Antique Art Nouveau Edwardian 14k bloomed yellow gold seed pearl flower brooch pin with watch pin hook back attachment, can also be worn off your favorite chain as a pendant, signed Carter & Company. Measures 1-1/16" x 3/4", weighs 3.5 grams. The 1/2" long suspension hook on the back allow you to hang your favorite lapel watch or any other goodie that you fancy. You can also run your favorite chain through the hook and wear this as a pendant necklace. The tiny seed pearl measures 3.5mm in diameter. Hallmarked "14K" as well as maker marked on the simple c shaped clasp. Completely original with no repairs or alterations whatsoever. In outstanding extremely well cared for condition, circa 1910.
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"BLOOMED GOLD"- The frosted finish or satin finish of bloomed gold is the result of bathing the gold in acid. This finishing technique is typically seen on turn of the century Victorian and Edwardian jewelry, although it dates back to its original use in the mid 1800s. The recipe involved boiling the gold in a mixture of salt, water, hydrochloric (muriatic) acid, and salt petre (potassium nitrate). The process created extremely tiny scarring in the surface of the gold which left a matte finish resembling peach skin- and referred to as "bloomed-gold". The finish was also used on only portions of a piece of jewelry, creating a dramatic contrast to a highly polished background or foreground.
About the maker, courtesy American Jewelry Manufacturers by Dorothy T. Rainwater: Carter and Company- (Newark, NJ)- Manufacturing jewelers founded November 1, 1841 by Aaron Carter, who, having been previously employed by the old firm of Taylor & Baldwin and D. Colton, Jr., pioneer manufacturers of Newark, embarked in business with Michael Doremus and A. Pennington under the name of Pennington, Carter & Doremus. The last listing found was 1932. They were manufacturers of gold, platinum and diamond jewelry, including anklets, bracelets, brooches, clip brooches, charms, gold chains, Waldemars, cuff links, dress and tuxedo sets, key rings, lingerie clasps, lipstick and puff boxes, necklaces and necklace snaps, bar, collar and handy pins, sautoirs, spring rings, swivels, scarf pins, and holders; also bead necklaces and collar buttons in 14k gold only. They were acquired by the jewelry firm Krementz in the 1930s.
According to The Glitter and The Gold- Fashioning Americas Jewelry (The Newark Museum)- Carter & Co. became one of the first American jewelry makers to use steam power. They purchased a steam engine built by Newark inventor Seth Boyden for the New York Crystal Palace Exposition in 1853 and installed it in their Newark factory in the mid 1850s. By 1878 the firm was reported to be the largest jewelry factory in the world with an annual output valued at $2 million. The Newark factory at Park and Mulberry Streets, in 1869, had four floors for its more than 300 workers. Two were consigned to general jewelry making, another to chain making, and the fourth split between the two. Separate areas were also set aside for polishers and engravers.
There is also extensive mention of the company on pages 404 and 405 in Jewelry In America by Martha Gandy Fales. Apparently a major fire in their New York location at 1 Bond Street (The Waltham Building), broke out in March 1877. This building was the center of the New York jewelry trade. Because the largest portion of their business was still in Newark, and their books had been secured in several safes, as well as their chain work and their enamel, the losses were minimized and production remained uninterrupted.
1- Jewelry In America by Martha Gandy Fales
2- The Glitter and The Gold- Fashioning Americas Jewelry (The Newark Museum)
3- American Jewelry Manufacturers by Dorothy T. Rainwater
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